Home

Disadvantages of greenhouse gases

There are several disadvantages such as - Global warming affect global weather conditions/pattern Greenhouse gases can lead to warmer summers and natural disasters (Hurricanes) It can destroy the water level balance due to melting of polar ice caps

Loss of Flora and Fauna: The rapid increase in rise of temperature owing to Greenhouse gases is called as Global Warming. With Climate change caused by Greenhouse emissions induced Global warming, there are increasing chances of floods, droughts, and destruction of natural habitats, risking entire biotic life. Some Facts hard to ignor The increasing greenhouse effect is creating a lot of menacing effects all around the world. The major negative effect of the greenhouse effect is the rising sea level which would risk the lives of millions of people living in islands and seashore The main greenhouse gases include Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide and Ozone. However, the first three are more worrying when it comes to the greenhouse effect as Ozone's detrimental role kicks in more with respect to global warming. How the greenhouse effect functions is a two way process Disadvantages of Green house effect: · As the green house gases assists to sustain the warmth, the main influence of the increment in greenhouse gases will be on weather. That results in the warmer.. The main greenhouse gases include Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide and Ozone. However, the first three are more worrying when it comes to the greenhouse effect as Ozone's detrimental role..

What Are The Disadvantages Of The Greenhouse Effect? - NEE

  1. g and, therefore, label these gases as bad. Yet, life on Earth evolved in a certain way because of how these gases regulate Earth's temperature. Watch this video of 6th-grade students in South Gate, California—an.
  2. Rising temperatures also worsen air pollution by increasing ground level ozone, which is created when pollution from cars, factories, and other sources react to sunlight and heat. Ground-level..
  3. g, loss of sea ice, sea level rise, stronger storms, and more droughts
  4. But greenhouse gases in the atmosphere make an adverse impact. They trap that heat and increase the warm temperature of the planet. This leads to consequences like deforestation, burn fossils, and make glaciers melt
  5. g. A consequence of climate..
  6. g which heat up the earth. The greenhouse gas that is emitted are carbon dioxide, methane , nitrous oxide and more. The greenhouse gases absorb infrared rays (heat) emitted from the Sun, which will be kept in the earth's.
  7. g due to the CO2 greenhouse effect, but our best estimate is that it currently cancels close to half of it (it is a much more short term effect though due to the much shorter atmospheric residence times of.

Greenhouse fans, which circulate air and keep foliage dry, don't generally create enough wind for pollination, one of the disadvantages of greenhouse technology. Manually tapping flowers to release.. Companies have to satisfy multiple objectives (such as quality, safety and overall environmental impact). There is often a tension between these and the goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

With too many greenhouse gases, Earth would be like Venus, where the greenhouse atmosphere keeps temperatures around 400 degrees Celsius (750 Fahrenheit). Rising concentrations of carbon dioxide are warming the atmosphere Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities.In 2019, CO 2 accounted for about 80 percent of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from human activities. Carbon dioxide is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of the Earth's carbon cycle (the natural circulation of carbon among the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants, and animals)

The Greenhouse Effect - Know The Advantages and Disadvantage

Disadvantages And Advantages Of Greenhouse Effect: A

  1. The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon and is beneficial for us. Certain gases in the atmosphere retain part of the thermal radiation emitted by the Earth's surface after being heated by the sun, this maintains the planet's temperature at a level suitable for the development of life. Human action, however, has increased the presence of.
  2. ed in monetary terms, these benefits to human health are shown to outweigh the implementation costs of.
  3. To do that, we need to reduce human emissions of greenhouse gases. But it could still have some partial impact on our ability to reduce climate change. A multi-country-led effort called the African Forest Landscape Restoration Initiative (AFR100) is working to reforest 100 million hectares of land in Africa by 2030
  4. The environmental impact of concrete, its manufacture and applications, are complex.Some effects are harmful; others welcome. Many depend on circumstances. A major component of concrete is cement, which has its own environmental and social impacts and contributes largely to those of concrete.. The cement industry is one of the main producers of carbon dioxide, a potent greenhouse gas
  5. However, too many greenhouse gases can cause the temperature to increase out of control. Such is the case on Venus where greenhouse gases are abundant and the average temperature at the surface is more than 855 degrees Fahrenheit (457 degrees Celsius). You might hear people talking about the greenhouse effect as if it is a bad thing

Disadvantages Of Climate Change. Our climate plays an important role in human societies and affects agriculture, ecosystems, our natural environment and our health. Human activities such as pollution and deforestation, has changed the climate as a whole, leading to an increased amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide to enter the. Natural gas emits 50 to 60 percent less carbon dioxide (CO2) when combusted in a new, efficient natural gas power plant compared with emissions from a typical new coal plant [ 1 ]. Considering only tailpipe emissions, natural gas also emits 15 to 20 percent less heat-trapping gases than gasoline when burned in today's typical vehicle [ 2 ] The solution is to stop emitting all greenhouse gases, for instance by replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources like solar power. Deforestation is actually one of the biggest sources. Greenhouse Effect 101. By increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, we're amplifying the planet's natural greenhouse effect and turning up the dial on global warming

Disadvantages of Biomass. While biomass advantages are plenty, it also has several downsides. The disadvantages of biomass fuel include: Emits harmful gases to the environment; Just like burning any other solid fuels such as coal, burning biomass also results in an emission of large amounts of pollutants Greenhouse gases keep the earth at a comfortable temperature, allowing most of the energy from the sun to pass through the atmosphere and warm the earth while blocking much of the outward radiation from the earth. However, increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are cause for concern Greenhouse Gases and Global Climate Change . While many greenhouse gases occur naturally and are needed to create the greenhouse effect that keeps the Earth warm enough to support life, human use. One of the common terms these days that has taken the world by a blow is Greenhouse Effect. Learn in detail about the advantage and disadvantage of green house gases in our earth atmosphere with the help of Global Assignment Help Australia

Greenhouse Effect: Top 3 Advantages And Disadvantage

  1. Disadvantages and Advantages of Mangroves ; Deforestation is a main cause of the higher concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In particular, deforestation causes high levels of.
  2. According to recent analysis, six of the top 10 emitters of greenhouse gases are now developing countries (this includes China). Developing countries as a bloc already account for about 60% of.
  3. The climate effect of non-CO2 emissions from aviation is much greater than the equivalent from other modes of transport, as these non-CO2 greenhouse gases formed at higher altitudes persist for.
  4. Top-Down and Bottom-up Approaches to Greenhouse Gas Inventory Methods Introduction Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are produced by a number of common global activities, such as heating and cooling, use of fossil-fuel-powered vehicles, business travel and employee commuting, and others (fig. 1). Executive Order (EO) 13514, Federa
  5. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is covered by the Kyoto Protocol. This agreement is, however, not binding for the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases, the USA (which has never.
  6. g effect also shifts. So, the true effect of a single GHG emission on climate becomes very hard to single out. Image to left -- Inland Wetlands: Sources of methane include natural sources like wetlands, gas hydrates in the ocean floor, permafrost, termites, oceans, freshwater.
  7. Burning jet fuel releases greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide into Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Greenhouse gases block heat from escaping from the atmosphere, causing temperatures to rise.

What are the disadvantages of the Greenhouse effect? by

Some of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are caused by humans. Whenever we burn anything, such as—. gasoline in our cars and trucks, jet fuel in our planes, coal in our factories or powerplants, trees to clear the land for farming. —we pollute our atmosphere with carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Although carbon monoxide does not. Students learn about the advantages and disadvantages of the greenhouse effect. They construct their own miniature greenhouses and explore how their designs take advantage of heat transfer processes to create controlled environments. They record and graph measurements, comparing the greenhouse indoor and outdoor temperatures over time. Students are also introduced to global issues such as. Yes, natural gas has both advantages and disadvantages. Despite all the disadvantages, natural gas is one of the cheapest and easily available fossil fuel in this world. All said and done, it can be considered that natural gas can serve as a viable alternative to other fossil fuels till such time as something more efficient can be found Greenhouse gases keep our planet livable by holding onto some of Earth's heat energy so that it doesn't all escape into space. This heat trapping is known as the greenhouse effect. Just as too little greenhouse gas makes Earth too cold, too much greenhouse gas makes Earth too warm. Over the last century, humans have burned coal, oil, and. Solar energy systems/power plants do not produce air pollution or greenhouse gases. Using solar energy can have a positive, indirect effect on the environment when solar energy replaces or reduces the use of other energy sources that have larger effects on the environment. However, some toxic materials and chemicals are used to make the.

Biofuels

Greenhouse Gases. Greenhouse gases are gases—like carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane, and nitrous oxide—that keep the Earth warmer than it would be without them. The reason they warm the Earth has to do with the way energy enters and leaves our atmosphere. When energy from the sun first reaches us, it does so mainly as light 1. Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Transportation, which includes vehicles used commuting to and from work, is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 2018, 28.2% of greenhouse gas emissions came from the transportation sector. Furthermore, the EPA says. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), any of several organic compounds composed of hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon. HFCs became widely used as refrigerants in the late 1980s, but their status as potent greenhouse gases led to their manufacture and use becoming increasingly regulated in the 21st century

Greenhouse gases are any gas that has the property of absorbing infrared radiation (net heat energy) from the earth's surface and returning it to the earth's surface. Gases that trap heat within Earth's atmosphere are called Greenhouse gases. They allow sunlight to pass through the atmosphere but prevent sunlight from escaping And then there's incineration's constant production of greenhouse gases. In 2016, U.S. waste incinerators released the equivalent of 12 million tons of carbon dioxide , more than half of which. Using biomass for energy has positive and negative effects. Biomass and biofuels made from biomass are alternative energy sources to fossil fuels—coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Burning either fossil fuels or biomass releases carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas.However, the plants that are the source of biomass for energy capture almost the same amount of CO2 through photosynthesis. GWP100 values are used to combine greenhouse gases into a single metric of emissions called carbon dioxide equivalents (CO 2 e). CO 2 e is then derived by multiplying the mass of emissions of a specific greenhouse gas by its equivalent GWP100 factor. The sum of all gases in their CO 2 e form provide a measure of total greenhouse gas emissions Untitled. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) control energy flows in the atmosphere by absorbing infra-red radiation. These trace gases comprise less than 1% of the atmosphere. Their levels are determined by a balance between sources and sinks. Sources are processes that generate greenhouse gases; sinks are processes that destroy or remove them

Greenhouse Effect: Advantages and Disadvantages by

Greenhouse Gases: Good or Bad? National Geographic Societ

  1. 4. Emissions means the release of greenhouse gases and/or their precursors into the atmosphere over a specified area and period of time. 5. Greenhouse gases means those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation. 6. Regional economic integration organization means a
  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Road Transport: Analytical Methods « ISBN 92-64-19678-1 77 2002 01 1 P Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Road Transport: Analytical Methods Road transport accounts for approximately 80% of CO 2 emissions emanating from transport, which corresponds to more than 20% of total emissions
  3. greenhouse to cause poor combustion or to cause flue gases to be drawn into the greenhouse through the flue pipe. Back drafts of flue gases can be a problem if a greenhouse is located in a windy area or if exhaust fans and heaters are inadvertently used at the same time. Flue gases can affect plant and human health, as will b
  4. iature greenhouses and explore how their designs take advantage of heat transfer processes to create controlled environments. They record and graph measurements, comparing the greenhouse indoo..

Dumping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere makes the atmosphere more humid. And since water vapor is itself a greenhouse gas, the increase in humidity amplifies the warming from carbon dioxide. Specifically, the team found that if Earth warms 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit, the associated increase in water vapor will trap an extra 2 Watts of. The greenhouse effect is a process by which a planet's atmosphere traps some of its parent star's energy. In our case, the Earth is the planet while the Sun is our parent star. The Earth traps some of the Suns heat and subsequently warms up. Greenhouse gases trap the Sun's energy to make our planet warm enough to support life Greenhouse effect, a warming of Earth's surface and troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere) caused by the presence of water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, and certain other gases in the air. Of those gases, known as greenhouse gases, water vapour has the largest effect.. The origins of the term greenhouse effect are unclear. French mathematician Joseph Fourier is sometimes given. Greenhouse gas inventories are emission inventories of greenhouse gas emissions that are developed for a variety of reasons. Scientists use inventories of natural and anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions as tools when developing atmospheric models. Policy makers use inventories to develop strategies and policies for emissions reductions and to track the progress of those policies

Consequences and Effects of Global Warming - What is the

  1. Why Nuclear Power Must Be Part of the Energy Solution. Many environmentalists have opposed nuclear power, citing its dangers and the difficulty of disposing of its radioactive waste. But a Pulitzer Prize-winning author argues that nuclear is safer than most energy sources and is needed if the world hopes to radically decrease its carbon emissions
  2. @article{osti_21418133, title = {Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste}, author = {Andersen, J.K., E-mail: jka@env.dtu.d and Boldrin, A and Christensen, T H and Scheutz, C}, abstractNote = {The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive.
  3. The researchers found that aggressively reducing greenhouse gas emissions could help prevent 300,000 to 700,000 premature deaths annually by the year 2030, two-thirds of which would be in China.
  4. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Electric Cars Introduction to Electric Cars An electric car is a vehicle which is driven by electric engines. The engines use electrical energy which is usually stored in batteries. Electric car is a variation of electric vehicle (EV). How Electric Vehicles Can Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emission

Advantage #1 - Longer Growing Season. One of the main advantages to growing in a greenhouse is that it offers you a longer growing season. Temperatures don't vary as much within a greenhouse, since the sun's radiation is trapped in the enclosure, retaining the heat within the structure. Growing seasons can be extended, even in cold climates NOAA's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index is designed to track the change in the atmosphere's ability to absorb heat since the onset of the industrial revolution. It is based on air samples collected from a network of sites around the globe and analyzed at NOAA's Earth System Research Lab in Boulder, Colorado.. Scientists assigned an AGGI value of 1.0 to the year 1990, which was the baseline. Water vapour is the most important greenhouse gas. This is part of the difficulty with the public and the media in understanding that 95% of greenhouse gases are water vapour. The public understand it, in that if you get a fall evening or spring evening and the sky is clear the heat will escape and the temperature will drop and you get frost Disadvantages of the Greenhouse Effect. As sunlight reaches the Earth, some of it reflects off the surface back towards space as infrared radiation, or heat. Greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone--absorb this infrared radiation and trap heat in the atmosphere. However, large concentrations of greenhouse gases in the.

BEST ATERNATE ENERGY-SOLAR POWER AND NUCLEAR ENERGY?

Climate Change - Pros & Cons - ProCon

Greenhouse effect occurs in the troposphere (the lower atmosphere layer), where life and weather occur. In the absence of greenhouse effect, the average temperature on Earth's surface is estimated around -19°C, instead of the current average of 14°C (Le Treut et al., 2007). Greenhouse effect is produced by greenhouse gasses (GHG) The major natural greenhouse gases are water vapor, which causes about 36-70% of the greenhouse effect on Earth (not including clouds); carbon dioxide CO 2, which causes 9-26%; methane, which causes 4-9%, and ozone, which causes 3-7%. It is not possible to state that a certain gas causes a certain percentage of the greenhouse effect, because. NOAA's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) is a yearly report on the combined influence of long-lived greenhouse gases (atmospheric gases that absorb and radiate heat) on Earth's surface temperature. The index compares the combined warming influence of these gases each year to their influence in 1990, the year that countries who signed the U. Main Greenhouse Gases. Multiple gases contribute to the greenhouse effect that sets Earth's temperature over geologic time. Small changes in the atmospheric concentration of these gases can lead to changes in temperature that make the difference between ice ages when mastodons roamed the Earth, and the sweltering heat in which the dinosaurs lived

Greenhouse Effect: Advantages, Disadvantages, Causes

greenhouse gases varies. The most common approach, the global warming potential approach, is only an approximation when used to calculate the social cost of non-CO 2 greenhouse gases. See Marten and Newbold (2012) for a more comprehensive approach to calculating the social cost of non-CO 2 greenhouse gases A. Emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are changing the climate. A carbon tax puts a price on those emissions, encouraging people, businesses, and governments to produce less of them. A carbon tax's burden would fall most heavily on energy-intensive industries and lower-income households. Policymakers could use the.

Geothermal Energy by Marcus Dunford

Global Climate Agreements: Successes and Failures

The Pros And Cons Of Greenhouse Gas - 598 Words 123 Help M

Solar panel production emits hexafluoroethane (C2F6), nitrogen trifluoride(NF3) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which are very potent greenhouse gases (based on a 100-year time horizon, their ability to trap extra heat in the atmosphere over time is about 12,200; 17,200; and 22,800 times more than that of CO2, respectively) [1 Prevention of greenhouse effect. 1. Avoid Use of Plastic: One should minimize the use of polythene and plastics for packaging, so recycle and reuse household waste. 2. Plant Tree: One should plant and trees to reduce the carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. 3. Avoid AC: One should avoid AC as much as possible. 4. Use of Bicycle: One should use bicycles for short distances, the use of fewer.

6 Advantages Of Hydropower That You Might Not Know

Why it's so difficult to reduce CO2 emission

Disadvantages; Coal (fossil fuel) When burned, it gives off atmospheric pollutants, including greenhouse gases. There is a limited supply of gas. Nuclear: Radioactive minerals such as uranium. More greenhouse gases are being emitted from clear-cut logging in British Columbia's forests than the replanted trees are able to absorb, according to a new report by a local environmental group Dairy production has a considerable effect on climate change due to emissions of greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide. In the US, the greatest sources of these emissions in milk production include feed production, enteric fermentation and manure management The agreement aims to substantially reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to limit the global temperature increase in this century to 2 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels.

The Disadvantages of Greenhouses Home Guides SF Gat

More carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and rising temperatures cause rice agriculture to release more of the potent greenhouse gas methane (CH4) for each kilogram of rice it produces, new research. These decisions impact the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the carbon footprint of state operations, and they offer an opportunity to increase markets for post-consumer recycled content (PCRC) products, which is critical to achieve AB 341's 75 percent statewide recycling goal. Increasing the procurement of PCRC products reduces GHG emissions

Five obstacles to reducing value chain greenhouse gas

1. One of the major disadvantages of non-renewable energy is that it is time-consuming. Mining of coal, searching for oil, installing oil drills, building oil rigs, inserting pipes to extract and the transportation of natural gases are very time-consuming processes. They also take a lot of effort. 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and analyses their main building blocks. It describes the drivers and challenges for governments, companies and investors in dealing with GHG reporting and includes 4 case studies examining in more depth the domestic GHG emission reporting schemes of the UK, France, Japa Products Greenhouse Gas Index Ozone Depletion Index Power of Greenhouse Gases Trends in CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O, A disadvantage of space-based observations is that the information on CO 2 mixing ratios is the vertical average throughout the entire column; ideally,.

The Carbon Cycle - NAS

Electricity contributes 29% of the greenhouse gas emissions in the USA and industry is responsible for 21%. That means there's a lot of room for manufacturing to go green with low-carbon. Advantages to Hydroelectric Power. Fuel is not burned so there is minimal pollution. Water to run the power plant is provided free by nature. Hydropower plays a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Relatively low operations and maintenance costs. The technology is reliable and proven over time Shell International aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 10 percent below 1990 levels by 2002. Since 1990 Baxter International has reduced the global warming impact of its emissions by 81 percent. Baxter also has a goal to improve their energy efficiency 10 percent per unit of production by the year 2005, based on 1996 levels of production Fortunately, the use of alternative energy sources, such as solar, wind, geothermal, and hydro energy, is gaining increased support worldwide. The wind energy produced in Denmark, for example, provides about 10 percent of the country's total energy needs. These methods of energy production emit no greenhouse gases once they are up and running Greenhouse gases: investment plan: disadvantaged communities. The California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 designates the State Air Resources Board as the state agency charged with monitoring and regulating sources of emissions of greenhouse gases. The act authorizes the state board to include the use of market-based compliance mechanisms

Overview of Greenhouse Gases US EP

India is the world's fourth-largest emitter of greenhouse gases (the collection of gases including CO2 which cause climate change), but in terms of cumulative emissions, it has imparted marginal. A greenhouse gas (GHG) is a gas present in the atmosphere, of natural or man-made origin, which absorbs and reflects infrared rays coming from the earth's surface. The increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as the gases targeted by the Kyoto Protocol (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, sulfur hexafluoride, fluorinated hydrocarbon, perfluorinated hydrocarbon.

The greenhouse effect is necessary to life on Earth, but relies on a balanced carbon budget. The carbon in fossil fuels has been sequester ed, or stored, underground for millions of years. By removing this sequestered carbon from the earth and releasing it into the atmosphere, Earth's carbon budget is out of balance Greenhouse gas emissions. Hydropower is a low-carbon technology which helps to mitigate the carbon emissions of fossil fuels. Hydropower generates more than 4,000 terawatt hours of electricity globally every year, enough to supply over 1 billion people with clean energy And if food goes to the landfill and rots, it produces methane—a greenhouse gas even more potent than carbon dioxide. About 6%-8% of all human-caused greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced if we stop wasting food. In the US alone, the production of lost or wasted food generates the equivalent of 32.6 million cars' worth of greenhouse gas. Six of the greenhouse gases listed in the table above, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, HFCs, PFCs, and sulphur hexafluoride, were targeted for reduction by the Kyoto Protocol of 1997.Countries that signed the Protocol agreed to reduce their cumulative emissions of these gases to 5% below 1990 levels over the period from 2008 to 2012 The greenhouse effect happens when. sunlight warms the Earth, and molecules. in the atmosphere intercept the resulting. heat before it can escape to space. An ordinary greenhouse keeps plants warm.

Energy by kathrynr_bartz

Methane accounts for about twenty percent of greenhouse gas emissions. Much methane, as well as other adversely-affective gases, has already been released in the production process. The wasted food is now adding to that. Less wasted food means we release less methane gas, which is way better for the environment. 3. It wastes oi Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth's average surface temperature over the past century primarily due to the greenhouse gases released as people burn fossil fuels. The global average surface temperature rose 0.6 to 0.9 degrees Celsius (1.1 to 1.6° F) between 1906 and 2005, and the rate of temperature increase has nearly. We have reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of these traits, and discuss the methods for selection and consequences for these phenotypes. Keywords: dairy cattle; enteric methane; environmental phenotypes; genomic selection; greenhouse gases If people keep adding greenhouse gases into the atmosphere at the current rate, the average temperature around the world could increase by about 4 to 12°F by the year 2100. If we make big changes, like using more renewable resources instead of fossil fuels, the increase will be less—about 2 to 5°F