Sodium fluoride properties

Sodium fluoride (NaF) - Structure, Molecular Mass

  1. Sodium fluoride has bactericidal properties but it is too toxic for use as a wound antiseptic. Systemic fluoride use during pregnancy has not been shown to prevent tooth decay in children Sodium fluoride is used as an insecticide. Used in the fluoridation of public water
  2. Sodium fluoride is a colorless crystalline solid or white powder, or the solid dissolved in a liquid. It is soluble in water
  3. Chemical Properties: Sodium fluoride is a stable compound It reacts with acids when it comes into contact with hot surfaces or when heat is added It emits toxic fumes and decomposes when it reacts with acids or comes into contact with hot surface


  1. Physical properties: Sodium fluoride is found as an odorless, crystalline solid that is white to greenish in color, depending on its purity. Its density is 2.56 g/mL, melting point is 993 °C, and boiling point is 1,704 °C. It is a hygroscopic solid (absorbs moisture from air)
  2. Physical properties Sodium fluoride is a white crystalline solid. Melting point - 992 ° C, boiling point - 1700 ° C
  3. Table 4-2. Physical and Chemical Properties of Fluorine, Hydrogen Fluoride, Sodium Fluoride, Fluosilicic Acid, and Sodium Silicofluoridea Property Fluorine Hydrogen fluoride Sodium fluoride Molecular weight 37.997 20.006 42.00 Color Pale yellow Colorless Colorless Physical state Gas Gas Cubic or tetragonal crystals Molecular formula
  4. Sodium Fluoride F 18 Injection is provided as a ready-to-use, isotonic, sterile, pyrogen-free, clear and colorless solution for intravenous injection. It is produced by particle acceleration in a 1820NO (dp,αn) 18F nuclear reaction from H218O. Each mL of the solution contains between 370 to 14,800 MBq (10-400 mCi) of carrier-free fluoride 18F, at the EOS reference time, in 0.9% aqueous sodium chloride. The pH of the solution is betwee
  5. Sodium fluoride is an ionic compound composed of Na + ions and F - ions. The chemical formula of sodium fluoride is given as NaF. The molar mass of sodium fluoride is about 42 g/mol. It appears as a greenish white solid at room temperature
Lithium Iodide Facts, Formula, Equations, Properties, Uses

Sodium fluoride is a chemical that consists of a combination of positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged fluoride ions. It exists as a white powder that easily dissolves in water Information in this record refers to the use of sodium fluoride F 18 as a diagnostic agent. The manufacturer recommends withholding breastfeeding for 24 hours after a diagnostic dose of 300-450 MBq (8 to 12 mCi); however, this time might be longer than necessary given the minimal amount of fluoride that appears in breastmilk. Twenty-four hours is about 10 half-lives of fluoride F 18 and less. Sodium fluoride (NaF) is an inorganic compound with the formula Na F.It is used in trace amounts in the fluoridation of drinking water, in toothpaste, in metallurgy, and as a flux, and is also used in pesticides and rat poison.It is a colorless or white solid that is readily soluble in water Fluoride is an active ingredient used in a toothpaste. Both stannous fluoride and sodium fluoride are effective sources of fluoride ions that work beneficially in remineralizing and strengthening weak enamel to fight cavities

Sodium fluoride - and its lattice spacing-structure - consists of a combination of positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged fluoride ions, and when dissolved in water, produces Na+ and F− ions Properties of substance: sodium fluoride Group of substances: inorganic Physical appearance: colorless cubic crystals Empirical formula (Hill's system for organic substances): FNa Structural formula as text: NaF Molar/atomic mass: 41.99 Melting point (°C): 992 Boiling point (°C): 1700 Solubility (g/100 g of solvent): 1-butanol: 0.003 (20°C

Sodium fluoride (SO-dee-um FLOR-ide) is a colorless to white crystalline solid or powder. It is best known for its role in efforts to prevent tooth decay. It may be added to toothpastes or mouthwashes or to municipal water supplies for this purpose The enamel of your teeth is made from a substance called hydroxyapatite a calcium mineral. It has a chemical group, the hydroxy part of this molecule is easily replaced by a fluoride ion when the toothpaste contains sodium fluoride or other fluori.. Sodium fluoride (NaF) is a metallic halide. It has been reported as dental caries preventive agent. It is the most widely employed preservative for glucose in blood. It has been reported to stabilize hepatic microsomal glucose-6-P phosphohydrolase enzyme

About Sodium Fluoride Sodium Fluoride is a water insoluble Sodium source for use in oxygen-sensitive applications, such as metal production. Fluoride compounds have diverse applications in current technologies and science, from oil refining and etching to synthetic organic chemistry and the manufacture of pharmaceuticals Sodium fluoride ( NaF) is an inorganic compound with the formula . It is used in trace amounts in the fluoridation of drinking water, in toothpaste, in metallurgy, and as a flux, and is also used in pesticides and rat poison. It is a colorless or white solid that is readily soluble in water

For most, sodium fluoride will help prevent cavities. Brushing regularly at all ages is what's important, says Papas, because you never outgrow your need for fluoride.. This article first appeared in the Fall 2012 issue of Tufts Dental Medicine magazine. Jacqueline Mitchell can be reached at jacqueline.mitchell@tufts.edu More information about Sodium fluoride (NaF). Solubility in fluorine hydride, water, acetone, ammonia liquid, sulfur dioxide, methanol, bromine trifluoride, ethanol, . To find more Sodium fluoride information like chemical properties, structure, melting point, boiling point, density, molecular formula, molecular weight, physical properties and toxicity information The Molecular Weight of Sodium Fluoride is. kg/kgmol. Conditions: Not Established. Information added from Fluoruro de sodio. Cristina Sanz Vicente 05-Jun-2007 9:14 am Report Abuse. Add a Physical Property of Sodium Fluoride. The Density of Sodium Fluoride is. g/cm3 g/m3 kg/m3 mg/m3 oz/gal lb/ft3 lb/in3 ton/yarda3

Properties - Public Service Announcement: Sodium Fluorid

The chemical or molecular formula of Sodium Fluoride is NaF. Florocid is obtained either as a colourless crystalline solid or the solid dissolved in a liquid, or white powder. It is odourless and has a salty taste. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol Maja Ponikvar, in Fluorine and Health, 2008. 6.1 Plasma fluoride. Fluoride taken in the form of sodium fluoride as a tablet or solution is absorbed rapidly. Only a few minutes after intake, there is a rise in plasma fluoride. The fluctuation in plasma fluoride concentration is dependent on the fluoride dose ingested, the dose frequency and the plasma half‐life of fluoride How to use Sodium Fluoride Take this medication by mouth , usually once daily as directed by your doctor/ dentist . The dosage is based on your age and the fluoride content in your water supply Physical and Chemical Properties. Sodium fluoride has the empirical formula FNa and a molecular weight of 41.99. It forms an odorless, noninflammable, white crystalline powder with a salty taste. It has a density of 2.78, a melting point of 993°C, and a boiling point of 1704°C. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol Sodium Fluoride F 18 Injection is provided as a ready-to-use, isotonic, sterile, pyrogen-free, preservative-free, clear and colorless solution. Each mL of the solution contains between 370-7,400 MBq (10-200 mCi) sodium fluoride F18, at the EOS reference time, in 0.9% aqueous sodium chloride. The pH of the solution is between 4.5 and 8

Sodium fluoride Formula - Sodium Fluoride Uses, Properties

Sodium Fluoride is a colorless or white, odorless crystal or powder. The pesticide grade is dyed green or blue. It is used to fluoridate water, in chemical cleaning and electroplating, and as an insecticide. Reasons for Citation f Sodium Fluoride is on the Right to Know Hazardou UN1690, Sodium Fluoride, 6.1, III UN number: 1690 Class: 6.1 Packing group: III Proper shipping name: Sodium fluoride, solid Section 15 Regulatory Information TSCA Status: All components in this product are on the TSCA Inventory. Chemical Name CAS Number 1DPH 54 CERCLA RQ 734 CAA 112(2) TQ Sodium Fluoride 7681-49-4 No 1000 lb R Objective: To compare the enamel protection efficacy of a stabilized stannous fluoride (SnF 2) dentifrice to a sodium fluoride (NaF)/triclosan dentifrice following acidic erosive challenge. Methods: In this in situ, randomized, controlled, double-blind, two-treatment, four-period crossover clinical trial, subjects wore an appliance fitted with human enamel samples 6 h day-1 during each 15-day. Sodium fluoride is another type of fluoride you might see in oral health products, such as some toothpastes. It can help fight cavities while strengthening your enamel. However, it can't fight. AlF4Na Sodium tetrafluoroaluminate -1869.0 -1827.5 345.7 105.9 AlH Aluminum hydride 259.2 231.2 187.9 29.4 AlH3 Aluminum hydride -46.0 30.0 40.2 AlH4K Potassium aluminum hydride -183.7 AlH4Li Lithium aluminum hydride -116.3 -44.7 78.7 83.2 AlH4Na Sodium aluminum hydride -15.5 AlI Aluminum monoiodide 65.5 36.

Influence of Sodium Fluoride Doping on Thermoelectric Properties of BiCuSeO Influence of Sodium Fluoride Doping on Thermoelectric Properties of BiCuSeO Novitskii, A.P.; Voronin, A.I.; Usenko, A.A.; Gorshenkov, M.V.; Khovaylo, V.V.; Shvanskaya, L.V.; Burkov, A.T.; Vasiliev, A.N. 2015-11-13 00:00:00 Journal of ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, Vol. 45, No. 3. 1.2 Physicochemical properties (IARC, 1982; Slooff et al., 1988; IPCS, 2002) Hydrogen fluoride (HF, CAS No. 7664-39-3) is a colourless, pungent liquid or gas with a boiling point of 19.5 °C. It is highly soluble in water, in which it forms hydrofluoric acid. Sodium fluoride (NaF, CAS No. 7681-49-4) is a colourless to white solid that i NE-18-16098, Quantify Sodium Fluoride/Beryllium Fluoride Salt Properties for Liquid Fueled Fluoride Molten Salt Reactors . ThorCon is developing a thermal thorium/uranium molten salt fueled reactor. Meeting near term deployment goals requires avoiding new technology wherever possible. The ThorCon reactor is not a breeder but requires regular. We describe the role of 18 F-sodium fluoride (18 F-NaF) PET/CT bone scanning in the staging of breast and prostate cancer. 18 F-NaF PET was initially utilized as a bone scanning agent in the 1960s and early 1970s, however, its use was restricted by the then-available γ-cameras. The advent of hybrid PET/CT cameras in the late 1990s has shown a resurgence of interest in its use and role

Sodium fluoride: formula, properties, benefits and harm

Sodium fluoride is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula NaF. A colorless solid, it is a source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications. Sodium.. Stannous fluoride and its effects on oral microbial adhesive properties in vitro Kazuo Ota, DDS, Susumu Kikuchi, DDS, DDSc John W. Beierle, PhD Abstract The effect of sodium and stannous fluoride compounds on the coherence of Streptococcus mutans was examined. Both commercial and reagent grade preparations were t~sted on S

One way to make sodium fluoride is to react the hydroxide with hydrofluoric acid. The resulting salt can then be purified by recrystallization. NaOH(aq) + HF(aq) → NaF(aq) + H 2 O(l) While not a normal route of preparation because of the expense, sodium metal reacts vigorously with all the halogens to form sodium halides Incorporation of sodium fluoride into cortical bone does not impair the mechanical properties of the appendicular skeleton in rats. Einhorn TA(1), Wakley GK, Linkhart S, Rush EB, Maloney S, Faierman E, Baylink DJ. Author information: (1)Department of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029-6574

The concentrated sodium fluoride solution would have a higher boiling point An equal number of moles of KI and MgI2 are dissolved in equal volumes of water. Which solution has the higher boiling point, vapor pressure, and freezing point Sodium fluoride is commonly added to drinking water in order to reduce the incidence of dental caries in children. In recent years, the most important application for fluorine compounds is in the pharmaceutical and agriculture fields. Selective fluorine substitution dramatically changes the biological properties of Read Mor

Fluoride 5000 ppm Toothpaste. 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition. 1 g of toothpaste contains 5 mg fluoride (as sodium fluoride), corresponding to 5000 ppm fluoride, sodium fluoride 1.1 % w/w. Excipient (s) with known effect: Sodium benzoate. Sorbitol solution (non-crystallising) Propylene glycol Aqueous sodium fluoride binary solutions have been studied for many years because of their interest in many areas [7-16]. Table 1 summarized the reported literature data on osmotic coefficients, and mean activity coefficients recommendations at 298.15 K. Isopiestic, emf and freezing point measurements are used to determine ( ϕ ) and γ ±. Fluoride is created from salts that form when fluorine combines with minerals in soil or rocks. Fluoride is usually very stable and relatively unreactive, unlike its chemical relative fluorine. Any chemical compound that contains the fluoride ion is also known as a fluoride, such as calcium fluoride (CaF2) and sodium fluoride (NaF) The structural properties of alumina as well as its fluoride and sodium modifications were characterized by X‐ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. We have shown, that fluoride ions interact with hydroxyls type Ia of γ‐Al 2 O 3 forming Al-F species, which then react at 400 °C forming β‐Al 2 O 3

Sodium monofluorophosphate is produced industrially by the reaction of sodium fluoride with sodium metaphosphate: NaPO 3 + NaF → Na 2 PO 3 F. The process involves scission of a pyrophosphate bond, analogous to hydrolysis. NaMFP can also be prepared by treating tetrasodium pyrophosphate or disodium phosphate with hydrogen fluoride Characterization and dielectric properties of sodium fluoride doped talc - Volume 49 Issue Yes. The fluorine is like the chlorine in bleach. It can react away the cell membrane of many bacteria. In the mouth, the bacteria that cause cavities are primarily Streptococcus mutans. They make lactic acid from 6 carbon sugars. However, you sho.. Fluoride 2800 ppm Toothpaste. 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition. 1 g of toothpaste contains contains 2.8 mg fluoride (as sodium fluoride), corresponding to 2800 ppm fluoride, sodium fluoride 0.619 % w/w. Excipient (s) with known effect: Sorbitol solution (non-crystallising) Propylene glycol. For the full list of excipients, see. Background: Fluoridated acrylic resin material can present more stable properties when compared with conventional one.The most widely used fluoride -containing substance added to dental resin materials is sodium fluoride (Naf). This study evaluated the effect of Naf in different concentration to the acrylic resin denture base material and its effect on tensile strength ,modules of elasticity.

The key difference between stannous fluoride and sodium fluoride is that the stannous fluoride can act against gingivitis, plaque, tooth sensitivity and protect from cavities whereas the sodium fluoride protects our teeth only against the cavities.. Stannous fluoride is the commercial name of the chemical compound, tin(II) fluoride. It is very common as an ingredient in toothpaste and. Sodium silicates that are high in their content of silicon can easily dissolve in water. Some of the most specific chemical and physical properties of sodium silicate include: Count of hydrogen bond acceptors: 3. Molar mass or molecular weight: 122.062 g/mol. Count of the covalent bonds: 3. Complexity: 18.8

Difference Between Sodium Fluoride and Fluoride

In testing the capabilities of tue apparatus, the dissociation pressures of hydrogen fluoride and uranium hexafluoride over their respective complexes with sodium fluoride, and the decomposition of the uranium hexafluoride complex to give elemental fluorine were verified Objectives. To determine if a stabilised, stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice provides greater enamel protection in situ against intraoral dietary erosive challenges compared with a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice.. Methods. A single-centre, investigator blind, randomised, supervised, two-treatment, non-brushing, four-period crossover in situ study was undertaken, with.

savvy-chemist: Ionic Bonding (2) Dot and cross diagrams

Common Uses of Sodium Fluoride Livestrong

Fluorine - Fluorine - Production and use: Fluorspar is the most important source of fluorine. In the manufacture of hydrogen fluoride (HF), powdered fluorspar is distilled with concentrated sulfuric acid in a lead or cast-iron apparatus. During the distillation calcium sulfate (CaSO4) is formed, which is insoluble in HF. The hydrogen fluoride is obtained in a fairly anhydrous state by. Salt is a condiment which can be obtained from water, rocks, or certain plants. by Alba Fernández Encinas. Salt, or sodium chloride, is a food additive available in different types. Each type of salt has its unique characteristics and flavors, and the uses for salt range from cooking, to cosmetics, and down to cleaning products Define sodium fluoride. sodium fluoride synonyms, sodium fluoride pronunciation, sodium fluoride translation, English dictionary definition of sodium fluoride. n. A colorless crystalline salt, NaF, used to fluoridate water, to prevent tooth decay, and as an insecticide and disinfectant The antibacterial properties of a 0.50% stannous fluoride mouthwash and a 0.27% sodium fluoride mouthwash of equivalent fluoride ion concentration (0.12%) were examined using standard bacteriologic plate count procedures.The stannous fluoride solution produced a significant bacterial effect, but the bactericidal activity of the sodium fluoride solution was negligible Sodium hypochlorite, also called as liquid bleach, is a powerful oxidizing agent that is widely used as a disinfecting and bleaching agent. Formula and structure: The chemical formula of sodium hypochlorite is NaClO, and its molar mass is 74.44 g/mol. It is an ionic compound composed of the sodium metal cation (Na +) bonded to the hypochlorite.

Removes 3x more plaque compared to a sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste*. Stannous fluoride has plaque inhibitory benefits due to its antimicrobial properties. In a 6-month clinical study with twice daily brushing, parodontax was proven to reduce plaque from baseline by 20%, gum bleeding by 63% and gingivitis by 29%. 1 Stannous fluoride has both bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties, which fight plaque and treat/prevent gingivitis. 5,6 The stannous fluoride also deposits a protective mineral barrier over exposed dentinal tubules to help prevent sensitivity pain from triggers such as hot or cold liquids and foods. 7 The anti-plaque, anti-gingivitis, anti. The gas formed from sodium azide is most dangerous in enclosed places where the gas will be trapped. The toxic gas quickly disperses in open spaces, making it less harmful outdoors. The gas formed from sodium azide is less dense (lighter) than air, so it will rise. Sodium azide prevents the cells of the body from using oxygen Sodium Silico Fluoride salts show similar application with sodium fluoride in the field of laundry souring, manufacturing enamels, manufacturing coated papers, wood preservative, foam production, opal glass, ore flotation and water fluoridation, in metallurgical applications such as foundry additives for aluminum foundry, cover flux, Si addition to aluminum, filler for bonded abrasives In this study, sodium cobalt fluoride (NaCoF3)/reduced graphene oxide (NCF/rGO) nanocomposites were fabricated through a simple one-pot solvothermal process and their electrochemical performance as cathodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) was investigated. The NCF nanoclusters (NCs) on the composites (300-500 nm in size) were formed by the assembly of primary nanoparticles (~20 nm), which were.

Sodium fluoride F-18 FNa - PubChe

How to use sodium fluoride dental. This is best used once daily just before bedtime instead of your regular toothpaste or as directed by your healthcare professional. Apply a thin ribbon of. properties of Vanish White Varnish allow it to be dispensed from the back of a gloved hand for added convenience. • The #1-selling fluoride varnish in the U.S. • Extended fluoride release— 22,600 ppm sodium fluoride • Added calcium and phosphate (TCP) • Contains xylitol • No need to dry tooth surface • Can be applied to tooth surface

Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of HalogensGroup 2 Elements - Trends and Properties

hydrofluosilicic acid, sodium fluoride and sodium silicofluoride, and can be used as a guide for testing the physical and chemical properties of samples of them. The stipulations of this Guide apply when this document has been referenced and only to hydrofluosilicic acid, sodium fluoride or sodium silicofluoride when used for th Highly‐Quality Sodium Rare‐Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals: Controlled Synthesis and Optical Properties. Mai, Hao‐Xin; Zhang, Ya‐Wen; Si, Rui; Yan, Zheng‐Guang; Sun, Ling‐dong; You, Li‐Ping; Yan, Chun‐Hua 2006-01-15 00:00:00 ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted. n Index of refraction, relative to air, at a wavelength of 589 nm (sodium D line); the index of pure water at 20°C is 1.3330. ∆ Freezing point depression in °C relative to pure water. η Absolute (dynamic) viscosity in mPa s (equal to centipoise, cP); the viscosity of pure water at 20°C is 1.002 mPa s electrical properties, mechanical and optical properties. In this work, preparation of PS-PMMA copolymer have been investigated. The sodium fluoride was add to PS-PMMA copolymer with concentrations are (0,1,2,3) wt.%. The samples were prepared casting technique. The optical properties of composites in the wavelength range (200-800) nm

Barium titanate Properties, Structure, Uses, Capacitor, MSDS

Fluoride doses are based on your age and on the fluoride content in your water supply. In general, you do not need to take fluoride if the amount of fluoride in your water is greater than 0.6 ppm. Carefully follow all dosing instructions when giving this medicine to a child. Measure liquid medicine carefully Fluoride We are manufacturing a wide range of fluoride chemicals that includes aluminum fluoride, sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and magnesium fluoride. Most of these fluorides chemicals, with the combination of different other chemical are used for various industrial applications To achieve the benefits of fluoride use, a toothpaste must have a concentration of at least 1,000 parts per million (ppm). Most commercial brands contain between 1,350 ppm and 1,450 ppm, usually in the form of sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate

Sodium fluoride - Wikipedi

Objective: This study evaluated Sodium Fluoride mouth rinse effects on elastic properties of different elastomeric chains.Study design: In this in vitro experiment, two orthodontic chains were tested. In the first group, they were stored in artificial saliva for the entire duration, and in the second group they were immersed daily in 0.05% NaF mouth rinse for 1 minute, artificial saliva-NaF. Sodium fluoride. Sodium fluoride is an inorganic chemical compound with the chemical formula NaF. It is a colorless solid and a source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications. When used as a desensitizer, sodium fluoride's mechanism of action has always been a controversial topic Sodium chloride is made from Na + ions and Cl - ions and has a melting point of 801°C. Magnesium oxide is made from ions with two charges (Mg 2+ and O 2- ) and so has a much higher melting.

Stannous Fluoride vs Sodium Fluoride: Pros and Cons [Updated

Properties - Sodium Fluoride - toothpast


Due to the character of the original source materials and the nature of batch digitization, quality control issues may be present in this document. Please report any quality issues you encounter to digital@library.tamu.edu, referencing the URI of the item Which of the following properties of a glass are physical properties? Check all that apply. It has a mass of 5.4 g. Sodium fluoride and hydrogen fluoride are used in etching of glass. It is transparent. It is brittle The aim of this paper is effect of Sodium fluoride concentration on the optical properties of PS-PMMA-NaF composite. 2.Experimental part The materials used in this paper are polystyrene, and. Sodium phosphates typically appear as a white crystalline substance. Because sodium phosphate refers to multiple chemicals not just one, the melting points, boiling points, and density of sodium phosphate, as well as the other chemical properties of sodium phosphates, can vary widely between the different chemicals

Niobium Facts, Symbol, Discovery, Properties, Uses9 Amazing Health Benefits Black Tea - Reasons Why YouGlass manufacture

Krypton will react with fluorine, F 2, when cooled to -196 °C (liquid nitrogen) and zapped with an electric discharge or X-rays, forming krypton(II) fluoride, KrF 2 [3]. Kr (s) + F 2 (s) KrF 2 (s) This compound decomposes when heating to room temperature. Xenon can be brought to react with fluorine, F 2 [3]: Xe (g) + 2 F 2 (g) XeF 4 (s), mix gasses at 400 °C then cool to -78 ° Abstract An adiabatic calorimeter was used to measure the enthalpy of solution of potassium tetrafluoroborate (0.01 mol multiplied by kg^-^1 to 0.02 mol multiplied by kg^-^1) in water and in aqueous sodium fluoride of different ionic strengths (0.2 mol multiplied by kg^-^1 and 0.5 mol multiplied by kg^-^1) at 298 K and 313 K At day 5, specimens treated with the stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice demonstrated 25% less enamel loss than those treated with the sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice. Treatment differences at day 5 were also statistically significant (P < 0.05), with estimated medians of 1.37 μm (SE 0.177) and 1.83 μm (SE 0.223.