Synovial chondromatosis pathology

Synovial Chondromatosis - Pathology - Orthobullet

Synovial chondromatosis - Libre Patholog

Synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition in which foci of cartilage develop in the synovial membrane of joints, bursae, or tendon sheaths as a result of metaplasia of the subsynovial connective.. Synovial chondromatosis is a rare cartilaginous neoplasm that most commonly affects the knee joint. Histologically, it presents as a multinodular cartilaginous proliferation showing clusters of chondrocytes. These can be quite atypical, simulating chondrosarcoma Excerpt from my pathology review of 21 classic bone & soft tissue tumors (full video: https://youtu.be/1WuhaGCtj4k). Links to the whole slide images on PathP.. The lesion shows clusters of chondrocytes separated by solid chondroid matrix. The chondrocytes frequently show moderate to severe atypia. Taken out of context, the histologic features may be mistaken for Grade 1 chondrosarcoma. slide 2 of In synovial chondromatosis, a benign condition, numerous cartilaginous nodules form in the soft tissues of the joint. The lesion is usually confined to one joint, particularly the knee, and occurs in young or middle-aged adults. It may or may not cause pain or swelling and usuall

Synovial chondromatosis. Hermann G(1), Abdelwahab IF, Klein M, Kenan S, Lewis M. Author information: (1)Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City University of New York, New York 10029-6574, USA. PMID: 7644946 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: Case Reports; MeSH terms. Cartilage, Articular/pathology (1)Department of Pathology, University of Ulm, Germany. In a case of synovial osteo-chondromatosis of the knee joint, foci of hyaline and calcified cartilage in the synovial membrane exhibited neither MIB-1-positive cells nor mitotic figures. Loose bodies of the synovial fluid showed a differen

Primary synovial chondromatosis: a clinicopathologic

Pathology. Synovial chondromatosis is widely recognized as a metaplasia of the synovial membrane, the etiology of which remains unclear. The most common theory suggests that pluripotent mesenchymal cells located within the subintimal layer at the juncture of the synovium and the articular cartilage undergo a transformation to chondrocytes. Synovial chondromatosis is rare joint disorder that has no clear etiology. Classification of the disorder was first reported by Milgram in 1977. One possible cause is a change in the level of fibroblast growth receptor factor receptor-3, which leads to a possible feedback loop that results in the formation of loose bodies 47 Robinson D, Hasharoni A, Evron Z, Segal M, Nevo Z. Synovial chondromatosis: the possible role of FGF 9 and FGF receptor 3 in its pathology. Int J Exp Pathol 2000 ;81:183-189. Medline , Google Schola Additionally, the subjects of intrasynovial cartilaginous lesions (primary and secondary synovial chondromatosis) and crystal deposition diseases are reviewed. Finally, the response of synovial tissues to implanted foreign materials that are used in large and small joint arthroplasty are described Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is an uncommon benign metaplastic disorder characterised by primary chondrometaplasia of the synovial membrane. It primarily affects large joints with a predilection for knee, hip and elbow joints

Synovial Chondromatosis Genetic and Rare Diseases

  1. antly monoarticular disorder of unknown aetiology.
  2. The synovial chondromatosis (SC) has a non-neoplastic pathology, characterized by the metaplastic proliferation of cartilage nodules in the synovial membrane, with the formation of endoarticular loose bodies. It has two forms, a primitive or idiopathic one and the other a secondary form
  3. Synovial osteochondromatosis (SOC) is a benign tumor characterized by synovial connective tissue metaplasia. SOC commonly affects major joints including the knee followed by the hip, elbow, and wrist. SOC cases in the hand are not reported as often as SOC of major joints. Particularly SOC of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb is rare. We report on a 57-year-old female with primary SOC of.
  4. Synovial Chondromatosis (SC) is a non-common benign articular pathology characterized by synovial chondroid metaplasia and proliferation. Most of the times it presents in just one articulation and is rarely seen in diarthrodial joints. 1-3 It is three times more frequent on men than in women. The age of presentation is between 30 and 50years old
  5. Synovial chondromatosis originates from cartilaginous metaplasia of synovial tissue near joints, tendon sheaths, or bursae. This condition is occasionally seen around the ankle but is rare in the foot. The lesions can achieve a significant size and presented diagnostic dilemma. With disease progression, the loose bodies may ossify and can be.
  6. Synovial chondromatosis is a type of non-cancerous tumor that arises in the lining of a joint. The knee is most commonly affected, however it can affect any joint. The tumors begin as small nodules of cartilage. These nodules can separate and become loose within the joint. Some tumors may be no larger than a grain of rice. Synovial chondromatosis most commonly occurs in adults ages 20 to 50
  7. synovial chondromatosis. synovial osteochondromatosis, primary synovial osteochondromatosis, synovial chondrometaplasia; Reichel's syndrome or Reichel-Jones-Henderson syndrome, named after Friedrich Paul Reichel, Hugh Toland Jones and Melvin Starkey Henderson. Definition: Synovial chondromatosis is a disease affecting the synovium, a thin.

HUMAN PATHOLOGY Clinical Features in Synovial Chondromatosis (n = 5O) Age (mean -+ SD) 41 + 12yr Age range 17-64 yr Male:female 32:18 (1.8:1) Sites Knee 34 (68%) Hip 10 (20%) Wrist 2 Recurrences 6 (12%) three cases that became malignant are included, 9 of the 53 cases (15%) had recurrences (2 months to 9 years) Visual survey of surgical pathology with 11226 high-quality images of benign and malignant neoplasms & related entities. Synovial chondromatosis Focused Synovial chondromatosis with stained slides of pathology RESULTS: Synovial chondromatosis of TMJ occurred more often in women and on the right. Symptoms included preauricular pain, swelling, limitation of mouth opening, crepitations, and deviation on opening. The detection rate of calcified loose bodies was 30% on conventional radiographs and 53.3% on computerized tomography chondrosarcoma, dog diseases, histopathology, malignant transformation, neoplasm, primary synovial chondromatosis Primary synovial chondromatosis is a rare monoarticular disease characterized by intra-articular production of cartilage nodules (chondromas), some of which ultimately ossify, lead-ing to the term osteochondromatosis. Less commonly.

Other articles where Synovial osteochondromatosis is discussed: joint disease: Tumours of joints: circumstance the lesion is called synovial osteochondromatosis. Like synovial chondromatosis, synovial osteochondromatosis is often a spontaneous or primary disorder of unknown cause. In many cases, however, it is a development secondary to other diseases of the synovium, such as rheumatoid. AS Kahraman, B Kahraman, M Dogan et al. Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint: radiologic and histopathologic findings. J Craniofac Surg 2012 ; 23 : 1211 -1213. 26 Synovial chondromatosis is the neoplastic formation of multiple benign cartilaginous nodules within the synovium that tend to become detached and migrate within the joint space . The relative risk for progression from synovial chondromatosis to malignancy is estimated to be 5% or less Primary synovial chondromatosis (PSC) is a rare, benign pathology characterized by the proliferation of osseocartilaginous nodules from the synovial lining of joints, bursae, or tendinous sheaths [1]. Disease onset is marked by chondroid metaplasia, where synoviocytes aberrantly modify their phenotype to secrete a cartilaginous matrix comprise Synovial and Intra Articular Pathology. The hip joint, a diarthrodial or synovial joint, under normal conditions can function under very high loads and stresses for seven to eight decades. The thick, fibrous joint capsule encloses the metabolically active synovial connective tissue in an environment that nourishes and protects the articular.

Synovial Chondromatosis - WebPatholog

  1. Primary synovial chondromatosis of the ankle. A case report. Holm CL. A case of primary diffuse synovial chondromatosis of the ankle with long-term follow-up is reported. Trauma is implicated as a precipitating factor. This unusual, distinctive synovial neoplasm presents readily recognizable pathological features (Fig. 2)
  2. Synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare condition although is known to affect the temporomandibular joint. This was an incidental finding on a CT brain performed for trauma.
  3. g cartilage. In most occurrences, there is only one joint affected, either the knee, the hip, or the elbow
  4. INTRODUCTION. Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a rare benign proliferative disorder where multiple metaplastic cartilaginous masses form within the synovial membrane [].Histological analysis shows metaplasia of synovial mesenchymal cells [].They may even calcify or ossify with time [].Most often the presentation is mono-articular and involves the knee, the hip being second most affected []
  5. In this episode, we review the high-yield topic of Synovial Chondromatosis from the Pathology section

Clinical Characteristics. Primary synovial chondromatosis is a relatively uncommon disease that typically affects patients in the third to fifth decades of life, although the age range for clinical presentation is wide (, 2 7, , 8 17).Men are affected two to four times more frequently than women (, 2 7 8 17).There are only rare reports of familial association (2% of cases) that in. Synovial chondromatosis 1. SYNOVIAL CHONDROMATOSIS DR Q M MORSHED MAHBUB ABIR MS RESIDENT NITOR 2. INTRODUCTION: • Synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition in which foci of cartilage develop in the synovial membrane as a result of benign metaplasia of the subsynovial connective tissue

Synovial chondromatosis (synonyms include synovial osteochondromatosis, primary synovial osteochondromatosis, and synovial chondrometaplasia) is a rare disease affecting the synovium, a thin flexible membrane around a joint. It is also known as Reichel's syndrome or Reichel-Jones-Henderson syndrome, named after Friedrich Paul Reichel, Hugh. Synovial Chondromatosis Epidemiology. Synovial chondromatosis is a benign disorder in which foci of cartilage develop in a joint due to chondrometaplasia of the synovial membrane. The cartilaginous nodules may remain attached to the synovial membrane or dislodge into the joint space to form loose bodies. Pathology. Only gold members can. Synovial chondromatosis typically presents with large joint effusion (s), and joints may appear deformed due to swelling or synovial hypertrophy. Synovial chondromatosis can result in severe disability and dysfunction. However, most cases are benign and this condition rarely undergoes malignant transformation It is usually found in the metaphyseal extraskeletal chondroma with endochondral ends of long bones although all other bony sites are ossification, synovial (osteo) chondromatosis, possible.1,2 This benign neoplasm is rare in soft tissues tumoural calcinosis, a synovial sarcoma, and an and usually arises from synovial tissue in joints and. Correct interpretation of synovial chondromatosis is a common pitfall in orthopaedic pathology particularly if interpretation is performed on cytologic and histological grounds only. Malignant transformation of synovial chondromatosis to a chondrosarcoma is rare but the reported risk of progression to malignancy may as high as 5 % . The.

Synovial Sarcoma. Synovial Sarcoma is a malignant, soft tissue sarcoma caused by a t (X;18) chromosomal translocation mutation most commonly found near joints, but rarely within the joint. The condition usually presents in patients between 15 and 40 years old with a growing mass in proximity to a joint The findings are consistent with synovial chondromatosis. ADVERTISEMENT: Radiopaedia is free thanks to our supporters and advertisers Chondromatosis, Synovial (22) Arthroscopy (7) Shoulder Joint (3

Synovial chondromatosis | Image | Radiopaedia

Primary synovial chondromatosis Radiology Reference

A case report of synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint is presented in which the limitations of clinical findings, needle biopsy, standard radiography and computer assisted tomography were exposed and the importance of clinico-pathology consultation reaffirmed Littrell LA, Inwards CY, Sim FH, Wenger DE. Imaging features of synovial chondromatosis of the spine: a review of 28 cases. Skeletal Radiol. 2016 Jan. 45 (1):63-71. . Yoshida H, Tsuji K, Oshiro N, Wato M, Morita S. Preliminary report of Ki-67 reactivity in synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint: an immunohistochemical study Synovial chondromatosis is a non-cancerous tumor characterized by the formation of multiple nodules of cartilage due to metaplastic development of the synovial membrane. Etiology can be a primary lesion, of which pathogenesis remains unknown, or low-grade trauma or internal disorders. This pathology can long remain undiagnosed and leads to therapeutic wandering, especially since clinical. Primary synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a rare proliferative disorder that causes pain, swelling, and restriction of movement to the joints it affects. The disease frequently runs a protracted course, often requiring multiple surgical procedures to obtain some control. Few reports exist detailing the natural history of SC, although malignant transformation to synovial chondrosarcoma (CHS) is. Synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition that is probably caused by synovial connective tissue metaplasia. It is very rare in the hand and wrist and because of its low prevalence and nonspecific symptoms, synovial chondromatosis can present diagnostic difficulties for the hand surgeon and may lead to a delay in treatment

Synovial chondromatosis and parameniscal cysts are well documented pathologies around the knee joint. We present an unusual presentation of synovial chondromatosis masquerading as a parameniscal cyst of the knee. The patient was an 82-year old gentleman seen in our knee clinic with painful swel, Author: R F Adam R George Brice Chary Duraikannu K P Iyengar Michael Greenhalg Synovial chondromatosis is the formation of hyaline cartilage nodules in the sub-synovial tissue of a joint, tendon sheath or bursa. The clinical symptoms include pain, swelling and restricted range of motion. The knee is the most commonly affected joint, but it also occurs in the hip, elbow, shoulder and ankle Synovial chondromatosis is a usually monoarticular condition consistent with metaplastic formation of multiple hyaline cartilaginous nodules in the subintimal connective tissue of the synovium of joints, tendon sheaths, or bursae. It may be purely intrasynovial, may consist purely of intraarticular loose bodies, or both..

A 3-year-old boy with synovial chondromatosis of the

Synovial chondromatosis is classified as either primary or secondary. Primary synovial chondromatosis results from a proliferation of chondrocytes in the synovial membrane leading to the formation of cartilaginous loose bodies. Secondary synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition characterized by the growth of separated particles from the articular cartilage or osteophytes in joint diseases open reduction and internal fixation with a locking plate. closed reduction and fixation with a reamed antegrade locking intramedullary nail. referral to an orthopaedic oncologist for staging studies, biopsy, and definitive management. IV antibiotics for 6 weeks. Arthroscopy. 2005 Oct;21 (10):1242-9 Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that does not commonly come across the pathologist's desk. It comes in three flavours: Hyaline cartilage, e.g. trachea. Fibrocartilage, e.g. intervertebral disc. Elastic cartilage, e.g. epiglottis Synovial chondromatosis is a benign pathology involving metaplastic proliferation of chondrocytes within the synovium. The knee joint is most commonly affected. Involvement of the cervical spine is rare. Thus far, 12 patient reports have been described in the literature involving single level facet disease with either an epidural mass or an. Objective To describe the radiographic, CT, and MRI appearance of synovial chondromatosis of the spine. Materials and methods Radiology and pathology databases were searched for cases of spinal synovial chondromatosis from 1984 through 2013, yielding 29 patients (16 males, 13 females)

Imaging of Synovial Chondromatosis with Radiologic

  1. Synovial chondromatosis is defined by the World Health Organization 1 as a benign nodular cartilaginous proliferation arising from the joint synovium, bursae or tendon sheaths. The condition of the primary growth characteristics and locally destructive behaviour suggest a neoplasm. 1 Although the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is infrequently affected by a tumour or tumour-like lesion, synovial.
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  4. Search by Diagnosis: Synovial chondromatosis Show Diagnoses Week 257: Case 1 Diagnosis: Synovial chondromatosis Week 100: Case 5 Diagnosis: Synovial chondromatosis Please enter your email address to continue to the Johns Hopkins Surgical Pathology Case Conference website
  5. Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a benign proliferative metaplasia of joint synovium into cartilaginous tissue. 1-5 It arises within the synovium of tendon sheaths, bursa, or joints. 6,7 The typical clinical presentation is pain and decreased ROM with joint swelling or effusion. 8-12 The cartilaginous tissue present within the joint may also detach and form loose bodies that can undergo.
  6. Pathology. Introduction. Extra-articular synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a rare, benign mass that arises from synovium found in joints and tendon sheaths. This condition is most commonly observed in the knee joint (50%), but any synovium containing site can be affected. Although benign, the abnormal synovium in this condition can calcify, and.
  7. Pathology and genetics of tumours of soft tissue and bone. Iarc. 2002. Miller MV, King A, Mertens F. Synovial chondromatosis. WHO Tumors of Bone and Soft Tissues. Int Agen Resear Canc Pre. 2002:245. Fuller E, Bharatha A, Yeung R, Kassel EE, Aviv RI, Howard P, et al. Synovial chondromatosis of the temporal mandibular joint

Synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition characterized by benign chondrogenic metaplasia of extra-articular synovial tissue. It usually affects a single tendon sheath of the hand or foot. This report describes a rare case with extensive synovial chondromatosis affecting all flexor tendons in the tarsal tunnel, its radiological features, surgical treatment, and clinical outcome Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis is a locally aggressive neoplastic synovial disease (not a true neoplasm) characterized by joint effusions, expansion of the synovium, and bony erosions. The condition usually presents in patients between 30 and 40 years old with recurrent atraumatic knee hemarthrosis. Diagnosis is multifaceted with clinical. Pathology High-Yield Topics. Topics with the highest number of questions. # Topic Importance Scrore Questions; 1 Synovial Chondromatosis C 8 4 45: Tumoral Calcinosis C 20 4. Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of loose cartilaginous bodies, due to the abnormal proliferation of synovial membrane. Synovial chondromatosis is defined by the World Health Organization as a benign nodular cartilaginous proliferation arising from the joint synovium, bursae or tendon sheaths [ 1 ]

Primary Synovial Chondromatosis - Radsourc

An unusual and difficult diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis: A case report. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology, Vol. 30, No. 5. Temporomandibular joint synovial chondromatosis accompanying temporal bone proliferation: A case report. Imaging Science in Dentistry, Vol. 48, No. 2 Synovial osteochondromatosis is a benign neoplastic condition which manifests as multiple cartilaginous or osteocartilaginous nodules within a joint, bursa and tendon sheath. It typically results in pain and stiffness of the affected joint, and is thought to arise as a result of synovial membrane proliferation and metaplasia.[1][1] We report the diagnosis and management of a 36-year-old man. Pathology⎪Synovial Chondromatosis 4 jun 2020 · The Orthobullets Podcast In this episode, we review the high-yield topic of Synovial Chondromatosis from the Pathology section Final pathology of surgical specimens showed lobules of cartilaginous tissue, lacking cytologic atypia, hypercellularity or mitosis, consistent with synovial osteochondromatosis (Figures 4, 5). Unfortunately, after his first post-operative visit, the patient was lost to follow up

Chondromatosis - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Synovial chondromatosis in the lumbar spine is rare and an association with lumbar radiculopathy has never been reported. We now report a case of lumbar vertebral synovial chondromatosis that impinged into the spinal canal and compromised the lumbar nerve root. Spine34 (11):E414-E417, May 15, 2009. Separate multiple e-mails with a (;) Synovial chondromatosis is a rare pathology of unknown etiology characterized by multinodular cartilaginous proliferation in the synovium. When it does occur, it usually develops in the large synovial joints (e.g., the knee, hip, elbow, and shoulder). Only rarely does it occur in the head and neck (most often in the temporomandibular joint) procedure. Primary synovial chondromatosis is a benign formation of islands of chondrocytes within the synovial lining of joints resulting in thickened synovium and forming sub synovial chondroid nodules. Synovial chondromatosis was initially classified as metaplasia, but more recent data prove the neoplastic nature of the process. Cartilag

Synovial chondromatosis and soft tissue - Modern Patholog

Objective To describe the radiographic, CT, and MRI appearance of synovial chondromatosis of the spine. Materials and methods Radiology and pathology databases were searched for cases of spinal synovial chondromatosis from 1984 through 2013, yielding 29 patients (16 males, 13 females) 1 Introduction. Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign proliferative condition with metaplasia of the synovial membrane resulting in a monoarticular arthropathy characterized by newly formed foci of cartilage. The disease usually occurs between the third and fifth decades of life and is 2 times more common in males than in females. Synovial chondromatosis can involve any joint, but the vast. Primary synovial chondromatosis of the joints can present as capsular constriction with peri-articular osteopenia. This rare presentation is highlighted in three cases (two hips and one shoulder). The diagnosis in all the patients was made on arthrography and/or MRI/CT and was confirmed histologically. Synovial chondromatosis should be considered in patients with this presentation Synovial chondromatosis (also called synovial osteochondromatosis) is a rare, benign condition that involves the synovium, which is the thin layer of tissue that lines joints. Although this type of tumor does not spread to other parts of the body, it can cause severe damage to the joint and lead to osteoarthritis. Early treatment is important to relieve painful symptoms and prevent further damage

Synovial chondromatosis of the ankle is rare and sparsely documented. Traditional surgical intervention is open loose body excision and synovectomy. Upon literature review, only two other cases were found to be managed arthroscopically. We report a case of synovial chondromatosis in a 54-year-old man leading to pain and limited range of motion of his ankle Primary synovial chondromatosis consists of cartilaginous metaplasia of the synovium, which leads to the production of intra-articular and periarticular osteocartilaginous bodies [8, 12, 18, 19]. The nomenclature has evolved with time to include chondromatosis of the joint capsule, diffuse enchondroma of the joint capsule, joint chondroma. was diagnosed with primary synovial chondromatosis. Magnetic resonance imaging was ordered in preparation for surgery (FIGURES 2A and 2B). Treatment/Outcomes Removal of loose bodies (FIGURES 3A and 3B) was performed 8 months following initial physical therapy evaluation, and shoulder mobility and strengthening ex-ercises were initiated 2 weeks. Noggin suppressed the expression of Sox9, Col2a1, Aggrecan, and Runx2 mRNAs in both the free-body and synovial cells. Further, it inhibited Osteocalcin expression in the synovial cells. These results suggest that BMPs are involved in the pathobiology of cartilaginous and osteogenic metaplasia observed in synovial chondromatosis

Synovial chondromatosis of the knee | Image | Radiopaedia

Synovial Chondromatosis • M>F • AGE 30-50 yrs • MC - KNEE • GROSS - Nodules of cartilage within synovium (loose bodies) • M/E - foci of chondrometaplasia within synovium with cartilage cells showing cytological atypia (Binucleation) • Recurs after excision • Rarely malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma occur Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a rare benign cartilaginous neoplasm in which recurrent fibronectin 1 (FN1) and activin receptor 2A (ACVR2A) gene rearrangements have been recently reported.Triggered by a case of malignant transformation in SC (synovial chondrosarcoma) showing a novel KMT2A‐BCOR gene fusion by targeted RNA sequencing, we sought to evaluate the molecular abnormalities in a. Synovial Chondromatosis and Chondrosarcoma: A Diagnostic Dilemma. Brita L. Sperling,1 Steven Angel,1 Grant Stoneham,2 Vance Chow,2 Andrew McFadden,3 and Rajni Chibbar 1. 1Department of Pathology, Royal University Hospital, Saskatchewan, Canada. 2Department of Radiology, Royal University Hospital, Saskatchewan, Canada Primary synovial chondromatosis is rare. It has a prevalence of 1 in 100 000 and usually affects male patients aged 20-50 years. The treatment of choice is surgical evacuation. Rate of recurrence is 3-23%. Rarely, transformation to malignant chondrosarcoma can occur A case of intra-articular calcifying synovial sarcoma of the right knee joint in a 27-year-old man is reported. Prior to admission the patient had been suffering pain in the right knee for 5 years. Plain radiographs showed multiple calcified densities in the anterior aspect of the right knee closely mimicking synovial chondromatosis

synovium - HumpathSynovial chondromatosis of knee | Image | Radiopaedia

Synovial Chondromatosis: Practice Essentials, Anatomy

Pathology & Lab Medicine. Pediatrics. Plastic Surgery. Psychiatry. Public Health. Results of a double-contrast arthro-CT scan were believed to be characteristic of synovial chondromatosis (Fig 5) Between 1971 and 1987, arthroscopy was performed in 39 patients with synovial chondromatosis of the knee; 29 of these patients (32 knees) were followed an average of 3.5 years. A good result was obtained in 78% of the cases. Removal of loose bodies was the only treatment in 31 of the 32 knees. A.

Synovial Chondromatosis: An Unusual Case of Knee Pain andSynovial chondromatosis in the shoulder - MedCrave onlineSynovial osteochondromatosis of hip | Image | Radiopaedia